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In most cases, surgery is not the first treatment used for anal cancer. For people who do need surgery, the type of operation depends on the type and location of the tumor. Local resection a local resection is an operation that removes only the tumor, plus a small amount of normal tissue around the tumor. The type of surgery you have depends mainly on the size of the tumour, the stage of the cancer and if you have had other treatments. there are two main types of surgery to treat anal cancer local resection and abdominoperineal resection. Local resection for anal cancer your doctor may recommend a local resection if the tumor is small, located in the outermost layer of the anus (called the anal margin), and has not spread to other parts of the body. Radiation and chemotherapy are often given before or after surgery. The type of surgery used depends on the stage (extent) of the cancer, where it is, and the goal of the surgery. Anal cancer surgery is one of three standard treatments generally recommended for cancers of the anus. While the optimal approach can vary based on the stage of the cancer and other factors, most patients are advised to undergo surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination thereof. Anal cancer is really a disease by which malignant (cancer) cells form within the tissues of the anus. The anus is the end of the large intestine, below the rectum, through which stool (solid waste) leaves the body. The type of surgery you have for cancer of the back passage (rectum) depends on the position and the size of the cancer in the rectum. The 2 main types of surgery for rectal cancer are called trans anal endoscopic microsurgery (tem) and total mesorectal excision (tme). Treating recurrent anal cancer often requires a surgery called an abdominoperineal resection (apr). For some people, the cancer will come back in distant sites or organs in the body. Anal cancer is primarily treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. Surgery is typically reserved for patients failing the above therapy. Most people treated for anal cancer dont need extensive surgery (known as an abdominoperineal resection, or apr). But if you do have an apr, you will need to have a permanent colostomy.